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EARLs Research

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Since publication of the EARL-V3 in 2021, a pilot study (Smaragdi et al., under review) of the revised manual has found

  • Excellent inter-rater agreement of the overall risk ratings, as well as Family and Child subscales (ICC=.92).
  • Good to excellent inter-rater agreement for the 21 individual items (κ = 0.18-0.94).
  • A significant correlation with the previous versions of the device (r = .68).
  • Able to predict severity of conduct problems 3-6 months after the EARL assessment.

The previous versions of the EARL have undergone extensive validity and reliability testing. Below are some highlights:

  • Excellent inter-rater reliability of the overall risk ratings has been found (ICC=.82). For the Family and Child subscales there was a high level of agreement (ICC = .78; ICC = .73, respectively) and moderate agreement for the Barriers of Treatment (then termed “Responsivity subscale”; ICC = .53; Hrynkiw-Augimeri, 2005).
  • High inter-rater agreement in a Swedish sample (average measure ICC = .92; Enebrink et al., 2006) and a Dutch sample (average measure ICC = .84; de Ruiter & van Domburgh, unpublished manuscript).
  • The EARL has also been found to be useful in predicting future offending (Augimeri et al., 2010; 2012; Koegl et al., 2012; Levine et al., 2001).
  • Overall Clinical Risk Judgement of the EARL has been found to predicted recidivism two years later in a group of untreated boys (de Ruiter et al., 2012).
  • A recent longitudinal study found that EARL total scores predicted conviction status (police records) for offending for boys up to 20 years after the original EARL assessment. The strongest individual predictors for conviction were Antisocial Attitudes for boys, and Antisocial Behaviour for girls (Koegl, Farrington, & Augimeri, 2019).

We are interested in learning about any work you have done with the EARLs and would greatly appreciate receiving any summaries, reports, or articles of your work. We are working toward establishing a collaborative research community that highlights national and international work on the tools. For more information, please contact Margaret Walsh.